At Club Recharge we pride ourselves in following the science and treating people with the proper therapy and the recommended dozing requirements. Every therapy we have has scientific research studies behind them that support the claims made by the manufacturer. We dedicate the page to all of the scientific research we have found that support the therapeutic benefits of our therapies.
Physiological Effects of Transcendental Meditation
Oxygen consumption, heart rate, skin resistance, and electroenceph-alograph measurements were recorded before, during, and after subjects practiced a technique called transcendental meditation. At Club Recharge we combine the therapeutic received with Transcendental Meditation with the therapeutic benefits you receive with Infrared Sauna. The sauna at Club Recharge contains all three wave forms of rays, near infrared, far infrared, and mid range infrared.
Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness
initial results suggest that meditation may be associated with structural changes in areas of the brain that are important for sensory, cognitive and emotional processing. The data further suggest that meditation may impact age-related declines in cortical structure.At Club Recharge we combine the therapeutic received with Meditation with the therapeutic benefits you receive with Infrared Sauna. The sauna at Club Recharge contains all three wave forms of rays, near infrared, far infrared, and mid range infrared.
Stress Reduction through Mindfulness Meditation
The techniques of mindfulness meditation, with their emphasis on developing detached observation and awareness of the contents of consciousness, may represent a powerful cognitive behavioral coping strategy for transforming the ways in which we respond to life events. They may also have potential for relapse prevention in affective disorders. At Club Recharge we combine the therapeutic received with meditation with the therapeutic benefits you receive with Infrared Sauna. The sauna at Club Recharge contains all three wave forms of rays, near infrared, far infrared, and mid range infrared.
Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain
Univariate analyses of medical and functional outcomes revealed significant reductions in pain intensity (64%), functional disability (77%) and pain medication usage (88%) in the yoga group at the post and 3-month follow-up assessments. At Club Recharge we combine the therapeutic received with Yoga with the therapeutic benefits you receive with Infrared Sauna. The sauna at Club Recharge contains all three wave forms of rays, near infrared, far infrared, and mid range infrared.
Infrared sauna in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis
In all patients, a clinically relevant improvement was seen during the IR sauna treatment with pain and stiffness decreasing 5 to 24 points on the VAS. Pain reduced approximately 40% and 60% and stiffness approximately 50% and 60% for patients with RA and AS, respectively. The sauna at Club Recharge contains all three wave forms of rays, near infrared, far infrared, and mid range infrared.
Effects of yoga interventions practised in heated and thermoneutral conditions on endothelium‐dependent vasodilatation
The seminal finding from this investigation was that Bikram yoga practised in a thermoneutral environment produced significant improvements in endothelium‐dependent vasodilatation in middle‐aged adults and that a 12 week hot yoga practice tended to improve this measure. The sauna at Club Recharge contains all three wave forms of rays, near infrared, far infrared, and mid range infrared.
Do Far-infrared Saunas Have Cardiovascular Benefits in People with Type 2 Diabetes?
Our results suggest that infrared sauna use may be beneficial for lowering blood pressure and waist circumference. Subject adherence to infrared sauna use is greater than adherence to other lifestyle interventions. The combination of favourable compliance/adherence, as well as effectiveness in improving blood pressure and possibly waist circumference, makes infrared sauna therapy an attractive lifestyle option. The sauna at Club Recharge contains all three wave forms of rays, near infrared, far infrared, and mid range infrared.
Effects of far-infrared sauna bathing on recovery from strength and endurance training sessions in men
In conclusion, deep penetration of infrared heat (approximately 3–4 cm into fat tissue and neuromuscular system) with mild temperature (35–50°C), and light humidity (25–35%) during FIRS bathing appears favorable for the neuromuscular system to recover from maximal endurance performance. The sauna at Club Recharge contains all three wave forms of rays, near infrared, far infrared, and mid range infrared.
Far-Infrared Therapy: A Novel Treatment to Improve Access Blood Flow and Unassisted Patency of Arteriovenous Fistula in Hemodialysis Patients
In conclusion, FIR therapy, a noninvasive and convenient therapeutic modality, can improve Qa and survival of the AVF in HD patients through both its thermal and its nonthermal effects. The sauna at Club Recharge contains all three wave forms of rays, near infrared, far infrared, and mid range infrared.
Efficacy of Acitretin and Commercial Tanning Bed Therapy for Psoriasis
Acitretin use in combination with commercial tanning bed therapy appears to be effective and useful for psoriasis in areas without access to physician-directed phototherapy. The variability of tanning salon light and quality mandates caution when using this therapy. Club Recharge is a wellness spa and DOES NOT offer unlimited tanning, we do allow one UV session per week to take advantage of the benefits and eliminate the risks.
Psychological benefits 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment with near infrared light to the forehead: a pilot study of 10 patients with major depression and anxiety
At 2-weeks post treatment 6 of 10 patients had a remission (a score ≤ 10) on the HAM-D and 7 of 10 achieved this on the HAM-A. Patients experienced highly significant reductions in both HAM-D and HAM-A scores following treatment, with the greatest reductions occurring at 2 weeks. Mean rCBF across hemispheres increased from 0.011 units in the off condition to 0.043 units in the on condition, for a difference of 0.032
Melatonin as a principal component of red light therapy
Melatonin is well recognized for its role as a potent antioxidant and is directly implicated in the free radical theory of aging  [Reiter RJ, Pablos MI, Agapito TT, Guerrero JM. Melatonin in the context of the free radical theory of aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996;786:362–78]. Moreover, melatonin has been shown to retard age-related increases in lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage
Red Light and the Sleep Quality and Endurance Performance of Chinese Female Basketball Players
Our study confirmed the effectiveness of body irradiation with red light in improving the quality of sleep of elite female basketball players and offered a nonpharmacologic and noninvasive therapy to prevent sleep disorders after training.
Evidence-Based Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy in Clinical Plastic Surgery
The initial development of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy and its evolution over the last century for use in clinical surgery has been slow, primarily because of lack of scientifically-derived, evidence-based knowledge of the mechanism of action.
PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THERAPY OF PERSISTENT ROTATOR CUFF TENDINITIS:
The value of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) for the treatment of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis was tested in a double-blind controlled study in 29 patients whose symptoms were refractory to steroid injection and other conventional conservative measures.
Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for management of osteoarthritis-related pain, stiffness and physical function: clinical experience in the elderly
Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy has shown promising therapeutic effectiveness on bone- and cartilage-related pathologies, being also safe for management of knee osteoarthritis.
Coupling of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) therapy to molecular grounds of the cell
In this review we compile results cited in reliable journals that show a ratio for the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in therapy, indeed. This is true especially for chronically inflamed joints. Furthermore, we try to link this therapeutic approach to the molecular background of chronic inflammation and arthritis.
Non-invasive electromagnetic field therapy produces rapid and substantial pain reduction in early knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind pilot study
This study examined whether a non-thermal, non-invasive, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), known to modulate the calmodulin (CaM)-dependent nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway, could reduce pain in early knee OA.
Are SPA therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy effective for chronic neck pain? Randomised clinical trial First part: clinical evaluation
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare SPA therapy (ST) with pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy in chronic neck pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 80 years, neck pain of more than 3 months' duration and pain score>30 mm on a visual analog scale (VAS).
Evaluation of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the management of patients with discogenic lumbar radiculopathy
This randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) in the management of patients with discogenic lumbar radiculopathy.
Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy Promotes Healing and Microcirculation of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers
This randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) in the management of patients with discogenic lumbar radiculopathy.
TREATMENT OF UNUNITED TIBIAL FRACTURES: A COMPARISON OF SURGERY AND PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (PEMF)
The use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of ununited fractures. The results of 44 articles published in the English language literature have been compiled to assess the effectiveness of PEMF vs surgical therapy.
Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy effectiveness in low back pain: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials
Low back pain is a worldwide prevalent musculoskeletal condition in the general population. In this sense, the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) therapy has shown significant clinical benefits in several musculoskeletal conditions.
Therapy with pulsed electromagnetic fields in aseptic loosening of total hip protheses: A prospective study
Aseptic loosening is the most common problem of hip arthroplasties, limiting its long term success. We report a study of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment in 24 patients with this complicatin.Aseptic loosening is the most common problem of hip arthroplasties, limiting its long term success. We report a study of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment in 24 patients with this complicatin.
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on delayed-onset muscle soreness in biceps brachii
to compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy and sham treatment on DOMS-related variables in elbow flexors at 24, 48 and 72 h after delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induction exercise.
PEMF Therapy Rapidly Reduces Post-Operative Pain in TRAM Flap Patients
Autologous breast reconstruction utilizing an abdominal donor site can result in significant and prolonged post-operative pain, which prolongs surgical recovery. This study investigates whether non-invasive pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy, shown to rapidly reduce pain after breast reduction without the cost and side effects of narcotic pain medications (1), can produce similar outcomes in more complex transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous.
Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy on Pain, Stiffness, Physical Function, and Quality of Life in Patients With Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials
Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is a potentially useful treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), but its effectiveness is still controversial. This study aimed to examine the effects of PEMF therapy and PEMF parameters on symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with OA.
Noninvasive up-regulation of angiopoietin-2 and fibroblast growth factor-2 in bone marrow by pulsed electromagnetic field therapy
Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy has been widely used in clinical practice for bone fracture healing. However, the mechanism of its action remains to be elucidated. Our object was to investigate the mechanism by which PEMF accelerates bone fracture healing.
Mechanical Stimulation (Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields “PEMF” and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy “ESWT”) and Tendon Regeneration: A Possible Alternative
The pathogenesis of tendon degeneration and tendinopathy is still partially unclear. However, an active role of metalloproteinases (MMP), growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a crucial role of inflammatory elements and cytokines was demonstrated.
A follow-up study of the in-practice results of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the management of nonunion fractures
During normal fracture repair, healing occurs within a few months. However, for a minority of patients, the processes of bone repair are compromised or interrupted leading to the development of delayed union and nonunion fractures.
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of cervical osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) on pain, range of motion (ROM) and functional status in patients with cervical osteoarthritis (COA).
Effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields compared with placebo in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee.
Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment reduces expression of genes associated with disc degeneration in human intervertebral disc cells
Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapies have been applied to stimulate bone healing and to reduce the symptoms of arthritis, but the effects of PEMF on intervertebral disc (IVD) biology is unknown.
Evaluation of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for the treatment of chronic postoperative pain following lumbar surgery: a pilot, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial
The incidence of chronic postoperative pain following lumbar spinal surgery has increased with the overall increase in the prevalence of lumbar surgery. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy in subjects with persistent pain following lumbar surgery.
Pilot Study: Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMFT) Alleviates Symptoms of Osteoarthritis
This study was designed to determine whether pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMFT) could alleviate common symptoms of arthritis such as pain, swelling and immobility and whether it could contribute to overall wellbeing. Five volunteers, all of whom were diagnosed with osteoarthritis, participated in the study.
Background: The nature of chronic diabetic foot ulceration disables the normal stages of healing, inducing a state of pathological inflammation resulting in a delayed healing process which predisposes the patients to infections. Purpose: This study was performed to compare between laser therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy in management of infected diabetic foot ulcers.
Short-Term impacts of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in middle-aged university's employees with non-specific low back pain: A pilot study
Non-specific low back pain (non-specific LBP) is common problem between office-work employees. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term impacts of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) therapy in the treatment of non-specific LBP symptoms as pain, back mobility, LBP disabilities, and Health–Related Quality of Life (HRQOL).
Use of a PEMF to Treat Complex TBI with Brain Gauge and Rivermead Outcome Measures
The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) claims that about 2.5 million cases of death, hospital admissions and emergency visits occurred in 2010 for TBI, but this is expected to be a significant underestimate since it only represents the people presenting for clinical care and receiving a diagnostic code
Mechanisms and therapeutic applications of electromagnetic therapy in Parkinson’s disease
Electromagnetic therapy is a non-invasive and safe approach for the management of several pathological conditions including neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative pathology caused by abnormal degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta in the midbrain resulting in damage to the basal ganglia.
Benefits of Supplemental Oxygen in Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients
Supplemental oxygen improves exercise tolerance of normoxemic and hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We determined whether nonhypoxemic COPD patients undergoing exercise training while breathing supplemental oxygen achieve higher intensity and therefore improve exercise capacity more than patients breathing air.
Effect of Exercise Training on Peak Oxygen Consumption in Patients with Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of supervised exercise training on peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in adults with cancer.
Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells
During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration.
Increased Exercise Capacity in Hypoxemic Patients after Long-term Oxygen Therapy
Low-flow continuous oxygen can lead to significant improvement in exercise capacity in selected patients with stable hypoxemic pulmonary disease. Although the mechanisms of improvement are incompletely understood, two tenable hypotheses are (1) the relief of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and (2) improved peripheral oxygen delivery.
Benefits of Supplemental Oxygen in Exercise Training in Non-Hypoxemic COPD Patients
Supplemental oxygen improves exercise tolerance of normoxemic and hypoxemic COPD patients. We determined whether non-hypoxemic COPD patients undergoing exercise training while breathing supplemental oxygen achieve higher intensity and therefore improve exercise capacity more than patients breathing air.
Local Oxygen Therapy for Treating Acute Necrotizing Periodontal Disease in Smokers
The main aim of treatment for acute necrotizing periodontal disease is fast and effective reduction of anaerobic destructive microorganisms to avoid periodontal damage. The effect of adjunctive local oxygen therapy in the treatment of necrotizing periodontal disease was examined in this study.
Blood flow restriction training in clinical musculoskeletal rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Low-load exercise training with blood flow restriction (BFR) can increase muscle strength and may offer an effective clinical musculoskeletal (MSK) rehabilitation tool. The aim of this review was to systematically analyse the evidence regarding the effectiveness of this novel training modality in clinical MSK rehabilitation.
The anabolic benefits of venous blood flow restriction training may be induced by muscle cell swelling
Venous blood flow restriction (VBFR) combined with low intensity resistance exercise (20–30% concentric 1-RM) has been observed to result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, increased strength, and increased endurance.
Combined effects of low-intensity blood flow restriction training and high-intensity resistance training on muscle strength and size
We investigated the combined effect of low-intensity blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on muscle adaptation. Forty young men (aged 22–32 years) were randomly divided into four groups of ten subjects each
Practical Blood Flow Restriction Training Increases Acute Determinants of Hypertrophy Without Increasing Indices of Muscle Damage
Resistance training has been widely recognized as an effective stimulus for increasing skeletal muscle size and strength. Traditionally, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends resistance training using intensities >70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) because it seems to elicit the greatest increases in skeletal muscle size and strength (2).
Blood Flow Restriction Training After Knee Arthroscopy
Quadriceps strength after arthroscopic knee procedures is frequently diminished several years postoperation. Blood flow restriction (BFR) training uses partial venous occlusion while performing submaximal exercise to induce muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BFR as a postoperative therapeutic intervention after knee arthroscopy.
Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Training on Aerobic Capacity and Performance: A Systematic Review
The development of new exercise interventions aimed at enhancing physiological measures of aerobic fitness and associated aerobic performance outcomes is a far-reaching research effort that holds great value for coaches and practitioners alike.
Blood Flow Restriction Training for the Rotator Cuff: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Blood flow restriction (BFR) training utilizes a tourniquet, applied to the proximal portion of one or more extremities, to occlude blood flow during exercise. Significant gains in strength and cross-sectional area can be achieved in muscles
Effects of low‐intensity bench press training with restricted arm muscle blood flow on chest muscle hypertrophy: a pilot study
Single‐joint resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) results in significant increases in arm or leg muscle size and single‐joint strength. However, the effect of multijoint BFR training on both blood flow restricted limb and non‐restricted trunk muscles remain poorly understood.
Cryotherapy in ankle sprains
This study assesses recovery from ankle sprains. Thirty-seven final participants were categorized according to the severity of their injury and the use of cryotherapy (15 minutes, one to three times per day) versus heat therapy (15 minutes, one to three times per day) for a minimum of three days.
Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcomes With Soft Tissue Injury?
Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases: MEDLINE, Proquest, ISI Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) on Ovid, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) on Ovid, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,
The effect of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity, pain threshold and pain tolerance
To determine the impact of the application of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity (NCV), pain threshold (PTH) and pain tolerance (PTO).
Cryotherapy after ACL reconstruction: a meta-analysis
This review concluded that cryotherapy after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction produces significant benefits in post-operative pain control, but no improvement in post-operative range of motion or drainage.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for Crohn’s disease complications: What do we know?
We read with great interest the article by Lansdorp et al.1 The authors report a high rate of metastatic Crohn’s disease (CD) in patients with ongoing wound-healing problems after proctectomy after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO).
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in fibromyalgia and the diseases involving the central nervous system
Objective. This paper briefly describes the therapeutic mechanisms underlying hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), and reviews data concerning its effects and efficacy in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and fibromyalgia (FM)
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves neurocognitive functions of post-stroke patients – a retrospective analysis
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of HBOT on overall cognitive functions of post-stroke patients in the chronic stage. The nature, type and location of the stroke were investigated as possible modifiers.
COVID-19, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT): what is the link?
The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemichas become an unprecedented challenge for the healthcaresystem worldwide, with an overwhelming number of patientsrequiring clinical attention and an unacceptably high mortalityrate within critical care facilities
Integrin-mediated adhesive properties of neutrophils are reduced by hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with chronic non-healing wound
In recent years, several studies suggested that the ability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) to promote healing in patients with diabetic ulcers and chronic wounds is due to the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and to a significant decrease in neutrophils recruitment to the damaged area. α4 and β2 integrins
Efficacy analysis of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients
Objective To explore the potential mechanisms underlying the prominent efficiency of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods Five COVID-19 patients, aged from 24 to 69 years old, received HBOT after routine therapies failed to stop the deterioration and progressive hypoxemia in General Hospital of the Yangtze River Shipping.
The Treatment of Perioperative Spinal Cord Injury With Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
To describe a potential novel application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the successful treatment of a postoperative spinal cord injury.
Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and corticosteroid therapy in military personnel with acute acoustic trauma
Acute acoustic trauma (AAT) is a sensorineural hearing impairment due to exposure to an intense impulse noise which causes cochlear hypoxia. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) could provide an adequate oxygen supply. The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of early treatment with combined HBO and corticosteroid therapy in patients with AAT compared with corticosteroid monotherapy.
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Chronic Inflammatory Conditions of the Pouch
Pouchitis can be a chronic complication of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis (CARP) and other inflammatory conditions of the pouch.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in an elderly critical coronavirus disease 2019 patient with endotracheal intubation: clinical effect analysis
bjective To sum up our experience of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in an elderly critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient with endotracheal intubation, providing references for the application of HBOT in COVID-19 treatment.
A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars
Based on skin evaluations (hydration, TEWL, elasticity), clinical questionnaires (SCORAD, ADI, PASI), and supported by photographic data and investigators’ clinical assessment, the results showed that topical treatment with CBD-enriched ointment signifi-cantly improved the skin parameters, the symptoms and also the PASI index score. No irritant or allergic reactions were documented during the period treatment.
Cannabidiol induces antioxidant pathways in keratinocytes by targeting BACH1
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that attracted a great attention for its therapeutic potential against different pathologies including skin diseases. However, although the efficacy in preclinical models and the clinical benefits of CBD in humans have been extensively demonstrated, the molecular mechanism(s) and targets responsible for these effects are as yet unknown.